Strength and conditioning - physio - exercise physiology

What is Strength and Conditioning?

Strength and conditioning (S&C) is a specialised field within the realm of exercise science and sports science that focuses on enhancing the physical performance of individuals, particularly athletes. The primary goal of strength and conditioning is to improve factors such as strength, power, speed, agility, endurance, and flexibility to optimise overall athletic performance.

Strength Training:

This involves exercises and activities designed to increase an individual’s ability to produce force. It often includes resistance training with weights, resistance bands, or bodyweight exercises.


Conditioning refers to the improvement of cardiovascular and muscular endurance, as well as overall physical fitness. This can involve aerobic exercises, interval training, and other cardiovascular activities.

Power Training:

Power is the ability to generate force quickly. Power training includes exercises that enhance the rate at which force is produced, such as plyometrics and explosive movements.

Speed and Agility Training:

This focuses on improving an individual’s speed, agility, and quickness through specific drills and exercises.

Flexibility and Mobility:

Maintaining or improving the range of motion in joints is crucial for preventing injuries and optimising performance. Stretching and mobility exercises are often incorporated.


Strength and conditioning programs are often structured using periodisation, which involves organising training into distinct phases with different goals and intensities. This helps prevent overtraining and maximises long-term performance gains.

Injury Prevention:

A significant aspect of strength and conditioning is identifying and addressing potential injury risks. Programs may include exercises and strategies to reduce the likelihood of injuries.

Strength and conditioning professionals, such as certified strength and conditioning specialists (CSCS) or personal trainers with expertise in this area, work with athletes to design and implement customised training programs based on the specific demands of their sport or activity. These programs are typically tailored to an individual’s current fitness level, goals, and the requirements of their sport.

Strength and conditioning is not exclusive to professional athletes; it can benefit a wide range of individuals across various age groups, fitness levels, and physical abilities. Here are some groups of people who can benefit from incorporating strength and conditioning into their fitness routines:

  • Athletes: This is the most obvious group. Athletes from various sports, including team sports (football, soccer, basketball), individual sports (tennis, golf, martial arts), and endurance sports (running, cycling), can benefit significantly from targeted strength and conditioning programs. These programs are designed to enhance specific physical qualities required for optimal performance in their respective sports.
  • Recreational Exercisers: Individuals who engage in regular physical activity for general health and fitness can benefit from strength and conditioning. This includes those who participate in recreational sports, group fitness classes, or simply want to improve their overall strength, endurance, and flexibility.
  • Fitness Enthusiasts: People who enjoy working out at the gym or engaging in fitness activities can use strength and conditioning principles to achieve specific fitness goals. Whether it’s building muscle, improving cardiovascular fitness, or enhancing athletic performance, incorporating structured strength and conditioning can bring variety and effectiveness to their workouts.
  • Weightlifters and Powerlifters: Individuals involved in competitive weightlifting or powerlifting rely heavily on strength and conditioning principles to improve their performance. These athletes follow specialised programs to increase their maximal strength and power in specific lifts like squats, deadlifts, and bench press.
  • Youth Athletes: Strength and conditioning can be beneficial for young athletes when appropriately designed and supervised. It helps develop proper movement patterns, improve coordination, and build a foundation for future athletic success. It’s essential to ensure that programs for youth athletes are age-appropriate and prioritise skill development and injury prevention.
  • Older Adults: Strength training is particularly important for older adults to maintain muscle mass, bone density, and functional independence. Conditioning exercises can improve cardiovascular health and overall mobility, contributing to a higher quality of life and reduced risk of falls and injuries.
  • Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention: Individuals recovering from injuries or surgeries can benefit from targeted strength and conditioning programs as part of their rehabilitation. Similarly, those looking to prevent injuries can use these programs to address weaknesses and imbalances in their musculoskeletal system.
  • Occupational Athletes: Individuals with physically demanding jobs, such as firefighters, police officers, and military personnel, can benefit from strength and conditioning to enhance their job performance and reduce the risk of work-related injuries.

It’s important for individuals to consult with fitness professionals or healthcare providers before starting any strength and conditioning program, especially if they have pre-existing health conditions or concerns. A personalised approach that considers individual goals, fitness levels, and any potential limitations is key to a successful strength and conditioning program.

While attending a gym can provide access to a wide range of equipment and resources for strength and conditioning, it’s not strictly necessary. Many effective strength and conditioning workouts can be done at home or in alternative settings. The key is to incorporate principles of resistance training, cardiovascular conditioning, and flexibility into your routine.

  • Home Workouts: You can perform bodyweight exercises such as squats, lunges, push-ups, and planks at home. Resistance bands and dumbbells are also portable and can be used for strength training. There are numerous online resources, apps, and workout programs that guide you through home-based strength and conditioning workouts.
  • Outdoor Activities: Activities like running, cycling, hiking, and even playing sports can contribute to cardiovascular conditioning and overall fitness. You can also incorporate bodyweight exercises or use portable equipment like resistance bands in outdoor workouts.
  • Community Centers: Some community centres or recreational facilities offer fitness classes, access to sports facilities, and sometimes basic gym equipment. Check your local area for affordable options.
  • Virtual Classes: Many fitness professionals and platforms offer virtual classes, allowing you to participate in live or recorded workouts from the comfort of your home. These classes often include a mix of strength training, cardio, and flexibility exercises.
  • Personalised Programs: If you prefer a more personalised approach, you can work with a certified personal trainer who can design a strength and conditioning program tailored to your goals, whether it’s for general fitness, sports performance, or rehabilitation. These programs can be adapted to your available space and equipment.
  • Mobile Apps: There are various fitness apps that provide guided workouts, ranging from bodyweight exercises to those incorporating minimal equipment. Some apps also offer progress tracking and personalised recommendations.

Remember that the key to effective strength and conditioning is consistency and progressive overload, gradually increasing the intensity of your workouts over time. Whether you’re at a gym or at home, focus on incorporating a mix of strength, cardiovascular, and flexibility exercises into your routine to achieve a well-rounded fitness profile.

If you’re new to exercise or have any health concerns, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or fitness expert before starting a new program. Here at OnePointHealth we have numerous qualified exercise Physiologists and Physiotherapists that can help you start your Strength and Conditioning journey.

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